Mathematics - Key Stage 2
In Key Stage 2 we aim to consolidate, reinforce, build on and extend the skills and knowledge the children have learned in KS1, then, by introducing new learning, help to prepare them for End of Key Stage Tests (sometimes called SATs) and be ready for the challenges of Mathematics at secondary school.
In line with our Key Stage 1 Maths curriculum, we use the National Curriculum as our guide. However, rather than use a scheme, we try to provide Maths lessons that are personalised to our Junior class which contains children from Years 3 to 6. This can be a challenge as we may need to provide lessons that are accessible for children working at KS1 levels and those working at KS3 levels in the same class. To do this we follow the topic order suggested by the National Curriculum:
- Number and Place Value
- Mathematical operations ( + - x ÷ )
- Fractions, decimals and percentages
- Ratio and proportion
Each block of lessons is designed to equip the children with the knowledge and skills they need to be able to access and succeed in the next topic. Over the course of 4 years in the Junior class, the children will learn new skills and new knowledge, build on these skills and knowledge and learn to apply them to a range of questions and problems. All the children in the class will work on the same topic, but at a level that is appropriate for them, with support for those who may find it hard and challenge for those whose skills need to be extended.
Number and Place Value
Building on from Key Stage 1, children are taught to count from zero in multiples of 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 25, 100 and 1,000 as well as counting back through zero into negative numbers. They learn to order numbers using their understanding of place value up to tens of millions and will round numbers to the nearest 10, 100 and 1,000.
They will also use Roman numerals up to 1,000 (M).
Children will extend their ability to add, subtract, divide and multiply to include increasingly large numbers and multi-step problems and use inverse operations to check answers – some of these will be done mentally and others using formal written methods (see Appendix 1 from National Curriculum). They will identify multiples and factors as well as prime numbers up to 97 as well as using BIDMAS to complete number problems in the right order.
We will teach children to recognise distributivity, commutativity and associativity to aid them to solve problems. They will also understand balance equations, understanding that the equal sign does not mean ‘this is the answer’.
Children will learn to find square numbers and cube numbers as well as their roots.
By the end of Key Stage 2 they will know all their tables facts up to 12 x 12 and Year 4 children will take part in the Multiplication Tables Check.
Fractions, Decimals and Percentages
Children will understand that fractions, decimals and percentages typically represent less than a whole and learn equivalence between fractions, decimals and percentages.
Using language such as numerator and denominator, they will recognise unit fractions and move on to working with non-unit fractions, using them to manipulate other numbers. They will learn to add, subtract, multiply and divide using fractions as well as comparing and ordering fractions with the same and with different denominators. This will lead to working with mixed numbers and improper fractions. Children will learn to calculate fractions of numbers and quantities.
We will teach the children that decimals are a factor of 10 smaller with each place. They will learn to add, subtract, multiply and divide decimal numbers, order decimal numbers and solve problems with decimal numbers.
Children will learn that percentage relates to ‘out of 100’ – 100 being the whole and will recognise simple percentages and their equivalents. Children will learn to calculate percentages of numbers and quantities.
Ratio and Proportion
The children will learn to solve problems involving relative sizes of quantities eg in recipes.
We will teach the children to use letters or empty boxes to create simple formulae, generate sequences and solve mathematic problems algebraically.
The children will build on their understanding that much of the world around them can be measured and quantified. They will learn to measure, compare, add and subtract length, weight, volume and money and learn how to calculate perimeter, area and volume and tell the time all using the correct equipment and the correct units of measurement involved. They will also learn how to measure and estimate angles including acute, obtuse, reflex and right angles. They will be able to solve problems involving these measures.
The children will learn to identify 2D and 3D shapes and their properties. They will learn how to use right angles to make turns and be able to identify parallel and perpendicular lines.
The children will learn about reflective and rotational symmetry using mirrors and tracing paper to aid them.
The children will learn to use 2D grids including single quadrant and 4 quadrant grids and how to draw, reflect and translate shapes around a grid, noting its co-ordinates as they do.
Mental Maths / Arithmetic
Each lesson begins with a mental maths / arithmetic session, consolidating what the children already know and extending their arithmetical ability. (see Appendix 2 for a typical Mental Maths test).
Each day begins with a ‘20 minutes’ settling-in session. Part of this involves providing the children with Maths questions which are specifically aimed at their level. This means we can personalise learning with targeted tasks aimed at reinforcing learned skills and extending their skills with carefully stepped problems, providing suitable support when needed. (see Appendix 3 for a range of typical 20 minutes problem sheet).
Assessment in Maths is an on-going process. Staff will constantly be assessing children’s knowledge and skills during lessons, helping with misconceptions and praising hard work and success. This instant feedback is vital for children’s learning.
Formal assessment takes place towards the end of each year in the form of End of key Stage tests which the Y6 children do. Children in Y3, Y4 and Y5 also do age-appropriate tests at the same time.
Booster Club also provides important assessment opportunities when children work on past Reasoning papers enabling staff to help with whole class gaps and misconceptions and problems that individual children may be experiencing.
Teachers mark all the children’s books the same day. This is important as it allows misconceptions and problems to be addressed quickly and effectively. Marking usually takes the form of praise and reward for good work and suggestions as to what the children could do to improve. For more information, see our Marking Policy.
Every year, from January to May we hold 2 Booster sessions a week, one of which focuses on Maths Reasoning. This gives the children the chance to familiarise themselves with the type of questions that come up in the End of Key Stage tests as well as allowing staff to work on areas for development.
Multiplication Tables Check (MTC)
Nationally, all Year 4 children take the Multiplication Tables Check. This tests their recall of times tables up to 12 x 12. Our Y3 and Y4 children are given opportunities to work on their tables using ‘timestables.co.uk’ on the laptops to replicate the type of questions that come up in the MTC.
Our children are provided with opportunities to work on a range of selected reasoning problems throughout the year – during Maths lessons, in 20 minutes sessions, for homework – and staff then work on any gaps that may present themselves. These are based on the type of reasoning questions that come up in the End of Key Stage tests.
Children are provided with regular, targeted homework to be completed at home, usually with parental support, to be handed in the following day to help consolidate learned skills and extend learning with challenge tasks.
All the children have a set of targets on their desk, one of which relates to the mental maths test we do each day. There is a reward system which works on completing 5 of their target, then progressing to their next target.
We encourage our parents to be involved in their children’s learning. This may include helping with homework, having formal meetings to discuss progress, chatting informally at drop-off and home time or through letters and other forms of communication. While we like parents to help, we are clear about how independent the children should be when completing homework.